12 Tips to Start Modern Dairy Farming in Pakistan

Filed in Agric Business, Success Tips by on November 16, 2021 0 Comments

Modern Dairy Farming in Pakistan: Dairy farming is a class of agriculture for the long-term production of milk.

Which is processed either on the farm or at a dairy plant.

Either of which may be called a dairy for the eventual sale of a dairy product.

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Dairy Farming Production Process

Dairy Farming Production Process Business: Common species

Although any mammal can produce milk, commercial dairy farms are typically one-species enterprises.

In developed countries, dairy farms typically consist of high-producing dairy cows. Other species used in commercial dairy farming include goats, sheep, and camels.

In Italy, donkey dairies are growing in popularity to produce an alternative milk source for human infants.

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 Business Background

While cattle were domesticated as early as 11,000 years ago as a food source and as beasts of burden, the earliest evidence of using domesticated cows for dairy production is the seventh millennium.

Dairy farming developed elsewhere in the world in subsequent centuries.

In the last century or so larger farms specializing in dairy alone have emerged.

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Large-scale dairy farming is only viable.

Where either a large amount of milk is required for the production of more durable dairy products such as cheese, butter, etc.

Or there is a substantial market of people with cash to buy milk But no cows of their own.

In the 1800s von Thünen argued that there was about a 100-mile radius surrounding a city where such fresh milk supply was economically viable.

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Modern Dairy Farming in Pakistan

1. Hand milking

Woman hand milking a cow.

Centralized dairy farming as we understand it primarily developed around villages and cities where residents were unable to have cows of their own due to a lack of grazing land.

Near the town, farmers could make some extra money on the side by having additional animals and selling the milk in town.

The dairy farmers would fill barrels with milk in the morning.

And bring it to market until the late 19th century.

The milking of the cow was done by hand.

In the United States, several large dairy operations existed in some northeastern states and in the west that involved as many as several hundred cows but an individual milker could not be expected to milk more than a dozen cows a day.

Smaller operations predominated for most herds, milking took place indoors twice a day In a barn with the cattle tied by the neck with ropes or held in place by stanchions.

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Dairy Farming Production Process

Feeding could occur simultaneously with milking in the barn although most dairy cattle were pastured during the day between milkings.

Such examples of this method of dairy farming are difficult to locate.

But some are preserved as a historic sites for a glimpse into the days gone by.

One such instance that is open for this is at Point Reyes National Seashore.

Dairy farming has been part of agriculture for thousands of years.

Historically it has been one part of small, diverse farms.

In the last century or so larger farms concentrating on dairy production emerged.

Dairy Farming Production Process

Large scale dairy farming is only viable where either a large amount of milk is required for the production of more durable dairy products such as cheese, butter, etc

Or there is a substantial market of people with cash to buy milk but no cows of their own.

Dairy farms were the best way to meet demand.

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2. Dairy Farming Production Process: Vacuum bucket milking

Demonstration of a new Soviet milker device. East Germany, 1952 The first milking machines were an extension of the traditional milking pail.

The early milker device fit on top of a regular milk pail and sat on the floor under the cow following each cow being milked, the bucket would be dumped into a holding tank.

These were introduced in the early 20th century.

This developed into the Surge hanging milker Prior to milking a cow, a large wide leather strap called a surcingle was put around the cow across the cow’s lower back.

The milker device and collection tank hung underneath the cow from the strap.

This innovation allowed the cow to move around naturally during the milking process rather than having to stand perfectly still over a bucket on the floor.

3. Dairy Farming Production Process: Milking pipeline

The next innovation in automatic milking was the milk pipeline Introduced in the late 20th century.

This uses a permanent milk-return pipe and a second vacuum pipe that encircles the barn or milking parlor above the rows of cows with quick-seal entry ports above each cow by eliminating the need for the milk container.

The milking device shrank in size and weight to the point where it could hang under the cow held up only by the sucking force of the milker nipples on the cow’s udder.

The milk is pulled up into the milk-return pipe by the vacuum system and then flows by gravity to the milk house vacuum-breaker that puts the milk in the storage tank.

Dairy Farming Production Process

The pipeline system greatly reduced the physical labour of milking since the farmer no longer needed to carry around huge heavy buckets of milk from each cow.

The pipeline allowed barn length to keep increasing and expanding but after a point farmers started to milk the cows in large groups.

Filling the barn with one-half to one-third of the herd milking the animals, and then emptying and refilling the barn as herd sizes continued to increase, evolved into the more efficient milking parlor.

4. Dairy Farming Production Process: Milking parlors

Efficiency of four different milking parlors.
1=Bali-Style 50 cows/h.
2=Swingover 60 cows/h.
3=Herringbone 75 cows/h.
4=Rotary 250 cows/h.

Innovation in milking focused on mechanizing the milking parlor to maximize the number of cows per operator which streamlined the milking process to permit cows to be milked as if on an assembly line and to reduce physical stresses on the farmer by putting the cows on a platform slightly above the person milking the cows to eliminate having to constantly bend over.

Many older and smaller farms still have tie-stall or stanchion barns but worldwide a majority of commercial farms have parlors.

5. Herringbone and parallel parlors

In herringbone and parallel parlors, the milker generally milks one row at a time.

The milker will move a row of cows from the holding yard into the milking parlor and milk each cow in that row. Once all of the milking machines have been removed from the milked row, the milker releases the cows to their feed.

A new group of cows is then loaded into the now vacant side and the process repeats until all cows are milked depending on the size of the milking parlor which normally is the bottleneck.

These rows of cows can range from four to sixty at a time, the benefits of a herringbone parlor are easy maintenance.

The durability, stability, and improved safety for animals and humans when compared to tie-stall the first herringbone shed is thought to have been built in 1952 by a Gordonton farmer.

6. Rotary parlors.

In rotary parlors, the cows are loaded one at a time onto the platform as it rotates. The milker stands near the entry to the parlor and puts the cups on the cows as they move past.

By the time the platform has completed almost a full rotation another milker or a machine removes the cups and the cow steps backward off the platform and then walks to its feed.

Rotary cowsheds, as they are called in New Zealand, started in the 1980s. but are expensive compared to Herringbone cowshed.

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7.  Automatic milker take-off.

It can be harmful to an animal for it to be over-milked past the point where the udder has stopped releasing milk.

Consequently, the milking process involves not just applying the milker but also monitoring the process to determine when the animal has been milked out and the milker should be removed.

While parlor operations allowed a farmer to milk many more animals much more quickly, It also increased the number of animals to be monitored simultaneously by the farmer.

The automatic take-off system was developed to remove the milker from the cow when the milk flow reaches a preset level relieving the farmer of the duties of carefully watching over 20 or more animals being milked at the same time.

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8.  Fully automated robotic milking

An automatic milking system unit as an exhibit at a museum Further information: Automatic milking In the 1980s and 1990s, robotic milking systems were developed and introduced principally in the EU.

Thousands of these systems are now in routine operation in these systems the cow has a high degree of autonomy.

To choose her time of milking freely during the day some alternatives may apply, depending on cow-traffic solution used at a farm level.

These systems are generally limited to intensively managed systems although research continues to match them to the requirements of grazing cattle and to develop sensors to detect animal health and fertility automatically every time the cow enters the milking unit she is fed, Concentrates and her collar is scanned to record production data.

9.  Use of hormones

Food and Drug Administration states that no “significant difference” has been found between milk from treated and non-treated cows but based on consumer concerns several milk purchasers and re-sellers have elected not to purchase milk produced with rBST.

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10. Animal welfare

The practice of dairy production in a factory farm environment has been criticized by animal welfare activists.

Some of the ethical complaints regarding dairy production cited include how often the dairy cattle must remain pregnant.

The separation of calves from their mothers, how dairy cattle are housed and environmental concerns regarding dairy production.

The production of milk requires that the cow be in lactation which is a result of the cow has given birth to a calf.

The cycle of insemination, pregnancy, parturition, and lactation followed by a “dry” period of about two months of forty-five to fifty days before calving which allows udder tissue to regenerate a dry period that falls outside this time frame can result in decreased milk production in subsequent lactation.

An important part of the dairy industry is the removal of the calves of the mother’s milk after the three days of needed colostrum allowing for the collection of the milk produced.

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Modern Dairy Farming in Pakistan

On some dairies, in order for this to take place the calves are fed milk replacer. A substitute for the whole milk produced by the cow.

Milk replacer is generally a powder that comes in large bags, and is added to precise amounts of water and then fed to the calf via bucket or bottle.

Milk replacers are classified into three categories:

protein source, protein/fat (energy) levels, and medication or additives (e.g. vitamins and minerals).

Proteins for the milk replacer come from different sources.

The more favorable and more expensive.

All milk protein (e.g. whey protein- a by-product of the cheese industry) And alternative proteins including soy, animal plasma, and wheat gluten.

The ideal levels for fat and protein in milk replacer are 10-28% and 18-30%, respectively.

The higher the energy levels (fat and protein).

The less starter feed (feed which is given to young animals) the animal will consume.

Weaning can take place when a calf is consuming at least two pounds of starter feed a day and has been on starter for at least three weeks.

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11.  Danger

Because of the danger of infection to humans, It is important to maintain the health of milk-producing cattle.

Common ailments affecting dairy cows include infectious diseases (e.g. mastitis, endometritis, and digital dermatitis).

Metabolic disease (e.g. milk fever and ketosis) and injuries caused by their environment (e.g. hoof and hock lesions).

Lameness is commonly considered one of the most significant animal welfare issues for dairy cattle and is best defined as any abnormality that causes an animal to change its gait.

It can be caused by a number of sources, including infections of the hoof tissue (e.g. fungal infections that cause dermatitis) and physical damage causing bruising or lesions (e.g. ulcers or hemorrhage of the hoof).

Housing and management features common in modern dairy farms such as concrete barn floors.

Limited access to pasture and suboptimal bed-stall design) have been identified as contributing risk factors to infections and injuries.

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12. Market

There is a great deal of variation in the pattern of dairy production worldwide. Many countries which are large producers consume most of this internally while others (in particular New Zealand), export a large percentage of their production.

Internal consumption is often in the form of liquid milk, while the bulk of international trade is in processed dairy products such as milk powder.

The milking of cows was traditionally a labour-intensive operation and still is in less developed countries.

Small farms need several people to milk and care for only a few dozen cows, though for many farms these employees have traditionally been the children of the farm family, giving rise to the term “family farm.

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Conclusion:

Advances in technology have mostly led to the radical redefinition of “family farms” in industrialized countries such as Australia, New Zealand, and the United States. With farms of hundreds of cows producing large volumes of milk.

The larger and more efficient dairy farms are more able to weather severe changes in milk price and operate profitably while “traditional” family farms generally do not have the equit Or income other larger scale farms do.

The common public perception of large corporate farms supplanting smaller ones is generally a misconception as many small family farms expand to take advantage of economies of scale.

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Modern Dairy Farming in Pakistan

The largest cow milk exporter is New Zealand And the largest importer is China. More than 55% buffalo milk.

The European Union with its present 28 member countries produced 158,800,000 metric tons Worldwide, the largest milk producer in India, and incorporate the business to limit the legal liabilities of the owners.


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