43 Most needed Equipment for Poultry Business

43 Most needed Equipment for Poultry Business

Across the country, there is an increased interest in raising chickens.  Whether it be the state of the economy or people choosing to go back to the basics of trying to supply their own food, there are more and more people starting to raise chickens. I receive alerts that have anything to do with “raise chickens” and daily I receive notifications of cities that are starting to allow chickens to be raised within the city. Many national hatcheries are sold out on baby chickens until the end of May and have a back-order list for those willing to wait!

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More and more people are raising chickensImage result for 43 Most needed Equipment for Poultry Business in Nigeria

With the interest in raising chickens, you need to have the correct poultry equipment to maintain your new flock. Some people just jump right in without a thought–kind of like I did in the beginning–my husband brought home six chickens and we are looking for something to keep them in, feed them with, and something to hold water. If you have a choice, first find out what is needed to start raising chickens and then get your chickens.

What comes first–the chicken or the chicken supplies?

At the local Family Meet Night at Green South, I noticed a lady had purchased a new baby chick and along with that she had a chick feeder, a chick waterer, and who knows what at home that was waiting for her new little chicken. I’m assuming since she attended this event, being held to educate people on how to raise chickens, she was prepared to start raising chickens. She probably is not aware that within a few weeks the baby chickens will not be able to eat out of the chick feeder without opening the top and the waterer will not hold enough to give them an adequate water supply for a day or longer.

These are some of the things that you learn from experience in raising chickens. If I was to start all over again and plan for my new hobby, here are the preferred chicken supplies I would start with.

1. Chicken Houses–when raising chickens the chicken needs a place to call home. Whether it be a chicken tractor, a chicken coop, or a livestock barn, give the chickens a place to get out of the rain, lay an egg, and roost at night. Baby chickens require an area with a heat source for a short time so the housing requirements will be different.

2. Poultry Equipment–this includes the chicken waterer, poultry feeder, and nesting boxes. The type of poultry equipment you purchase depends on the age of the chicken. The feeder and waterer requirements for baby chickens are different than adult birds. You will need the regular feeders at some point. Unless you buy a pre-fab chicken house most do not come with nesting boxes so you will need to supply the area where you want to gather the eggs.

3. Used Poultry Equipment–there are many sources to purchase used poultry equipment and the first place I usually look is Craigslist and from there I search for any local livestock or small animal auctions. And don’t forget your local trading posts papers. We have one that comes from our local electric company and sometimes they have some items at good prices.

4. Chicken Feed–when you bring home your new chickens one of the first things they want to do is eat. Again what type you buy is determined by the age of the chicken. There is a variety of chicken feeds out there so do your homework to choose the one that is right for you.

5. Storage Containers for Poultry Supplies–what do I mean by this? Somewhere to keep your food and grain so other animals do not have access to it. The likelihood of attracting critters of some sort is very high with all the scratching a chicken does in its food that helps to spread it around. I use metal trash containers and they do the trick. I keep my food supplies in one and my chicken equipment in the other.

  • Hot water will be necessary for operating most hatchery tray washers and for general clean-up.

A large capacity boiler is generally used to provide hot water.

6. Hatcher

  • It is similar to that of setter but the turning mechanism is not available and the trays are designed to hold the newly hatched chicks.
  • Here, the eggs are placed for the last three days of incubation.
  • Various styles of setter and hatcher found around the world include,
    • Walk-in or Corridor incubators
    • Tunnel type incubators
    • Vertical fan incubators

7. Compressed air system

  • Some incubators require compressed air to actuate the turning mechanism for the racks of eggs.
  • A large central compressed air system is needed for blowing down dust and other dry-cleaning in the hatchery.

8. Emergency standby electric plantsImage result for 43 Most needed Equipment for Poultry Business in Nigeria

  • Therefore, a standby electrical generator located on-site, generally within, or next to the hatchery building is imperative.
  • The standby electrical generator should have the capacity to support the all essential services of the hatchery.
  • Hatcher tray washers
  • Waste removal systems
  • Egg transfer machines
  • In ovo vaccination equipment
  • Chick box washers
  • Rack washers
  • Vaccinating/sexing / Grading systems
  • High pressure pumps

9. Hatching egg trays

  • Generally hatching eggs are set in the flats or bug-eye type trays.
  • The capacity of each tray is either 90 or 180 chicken eggs.

10. Hatching egg transfer machines

  • This is used to transfer the eggs from the breeder farm trays to hatcher trays.
  • Vacuum egg lifts usually employed in the hatcheries handling large volume of eggs.

11. Egg candler

  • It is a lighting device, used to find out the internal structure of eggs.
  • Two types of egg candlers are available, individual and mass candlers.

 12. Brooder equipment

  • Equipment used to provide warmth and light and to rear the baby chicks during the first few weeks of life are called brooders.
  • The brooders consist of some heating source, reflectors to reflect the heat and light towards the chicks, light and heat adjustment devices such as stands, thermostats and other accessories, depending on the model.
  • Different equipment used for brooding are,

13. Charcoal stove / kerosene stove 

  • These are used in places where electricity is not available or costly and where power failure is quite common.
  • These stoves are covered with plates or pans to sustain the heat in the brooding area.

14. Gas brooder 

  • Natural gas, LPG or methane is connected to heating element which is hanged 3 to 5 feet above the chick to provide heat.
  • It is attached with canopy type reflectors to reflect the heat towards the chicks.

15. Electrical brooder 

  • It is also thermostatically controlled heating system that spread required amount of heat uniformly above large area, this avoid crowding of chicks under brooder directly.
  • One electrical brooder can be used for 300 to 400 chicks.

16. Infra-red bulbs 

  • It is a self reflecting bulb and hence no need of reflector over the bulbs.
  • 150 and 250 watt bulbs are available to provide sufficient heat to 150 and 250 chicks, respectively.  

17. Reflectors/ Hovers 

  •  These reflectors are called Hovers.
  •  These are reflectors of heat and light.

i). Flat type hover

  • These hovers are flat provided with heating element, heating mechanism and pilot lamp and in some cases thermometer are also there in order to record the temperature.
  • Generally they are mounted with stands on all four corners, instead of hanging from the roof.

ii).Canopy type hover

  • These reflectors are in concave shape consisting of ordinary electrical bulb, thermostat mechanism and in some cases thermometer.

18. Brooder guard / chick guard 

  • These are thin sheets of metal, hard board, or bamboo mat of 1 to 1.5 feet height and varying in lengths.
  • They are used to restrict the movement of chicks, so that the chicks will be kept closer to the brooders and prevent them from chilling.
  • They are used to prevent chicks from straying too far away from heat supply until they learn the source of heat.
  • We have to provide brooder guard with a diameter of 5 feet, height of the brooder should not exceed 1.5 feet.
  • For this purpose, we can use materials like cardboard sheet, GI sheet, wire mesh, and mat etc. depending upon the season of brooding.
  • During summer season, brooding is done for 5-6 days. In winter season it is 2-3 weeks.

19. Electrical heaters (heating rods or coils) 

  • This type of brooder is provided with heating elements and pilot lamps and in some cases thermometer is provided to record the temperature.
  • They used to have a reflecting device over the heating rods or coils.
  • The temperature can be adjusted depending on the requirement.

20. Feeding Equipment

  • Feeders are equipment used to feed the birds, by placing feed in them.
  • They may be conventional, semi-automatic of various designs and shapes and made up of either metal or plastic.
  • Different feeding equipment are,

21. Automatic feeder 

  • In case of automatic feeder the feed is supplied to the entire length of the poultry house by specially designed feed troughs with auger type or chain type devices to move the feed from the feed bins to the other end.
  • These are operated with electricity and the height of the feeder can be adjusted depending upon the age of the birds.

22. Linear feeder 

  • Different sizes of linear feeder with guards are available.
  • Provision is also made to adjust the height of the feeder.
  • Linear feeders are usually made of Galvanized Iron. However it can as well be made out of any locally available material like wood, bamboo, etc.
  • Provisions for stability and adjustment in height at which the feeder stands have to be made in its design.
  • Birds can stand on either side of the linear feeder.
  • Total feeder space available = 2* length.
  • No of linear feeders = (2*Length of the feeder) ÷ Feeder space with all measurements in cm.

23. Circular feeder 

  • These are semi-automatic feeders and can hold 5 to 7 kg feed in its cone at a time.
  • The feed is slowly delivered to the bottom by gravity.
  • It can also be attached with feed grills to prevent wastage.
  •  These are made of high plastic and usually suspended from roof/ roof-truss or from separate pipeline for the purpose.
  • These are also called as ‘hanging feeders’.
  • These feeders are available in different capacity and when completely full, the feed will suffice 4 to 7 days, depending upon the age and number feeding on them.
  • The height at which the feed is available can be easily adjusted by simple clamp mechanism.
  • Plastic feeders will be brightly colored (red or blue, generally) and hence are expected to attract layers, especially chicks to feed.
  • No. of hanging feeders = 1.3* (Circumference ÷ Feeder space) with all measurements in cm.
  • 30% more birds can be accommodated in a hanging feeder when compared to that in linear feeder.

Equipment for Poultry Business

24. Shell grit box 

  • It is used to provide shell grit to the layer birds as a supplemental source of calcium.

Water equipments

25. Water softeners and filters

  • Water with high total dissolved solids will cause deposits on the humidity controls, spray nozzles, jets and valve seats.
  • Therefore filter systems and water softeners are necessary to reduce the TDS content of the water used for hatchery operations.

26. Water heaters 

 Watering equipment

  • Waterers or drinkers are used to provide water to the birds.
  • Waterers are available in different sizes, design and shape.

Equipment for Poultry Business

27. Pan and Jar type 

  • This type of waterer is circular in nature, having two compartments i.e. jar for filling water and pan for delivering water.

28. Linear waterer / Channel type waterers

  • This type waterer is usually attached with cages for providing continuous water supply.
  • One end of channel type waterer is designed as funnel shape to receive water from a tap and the other end has the provision for draining the excess water. Setter
    It is a machine in which proper temperature, humidity and turning are provided for the first 19 days of incubating chicken

29. Water basin made of plastic / wood/GI with grill

  • Basins of different diameters are available (10”, 12”, 14” and 16” diameter).
  • A separate grill is available to prevent the entry of birds inside the water.

Equipment for Poultry Business

30. Bell type automatic waterer

These are made of high-impact plastic in a bell shape usually suspended from separate pipeline for the purpose.

This type of waterers has control over the water flow and maintains the required water level always.

There will be a continuous flow of water so as to ensure water available for the birds throughout the day.

Height at which the water is available can be easily adjusted by simple clamp mechanism and rate of flow water is adjustable by a valve (spring-mounted).

Plastic drinkers will be brightly colored (red,blue) and hence are expected to attract layers, especially chicks to water.

No. of bell-drinkers=1.3*(circumference÷ Drinker space)

31. Nipple drinker 
It can be used both in deep-litter and in cage system.

When used in deep-litter system, it is attached with cup under the nipple to prevent wetting of litter material.

These drinkers look like a nipple and water drops comes out when they are pressed.

They can be used for all types and classes of birds, but most commonly used in laying cages.

One nipple drinkers in each cage housing 3 layers is sufficient.

Equipment for Poultry Business

32. Manual drinker
In case of chicks during first week of brooding, manual drinkers are popularly used.

They also referred as “fountain drinkers” because water comes out of the holes like that in case of a fountain.

The main advantage of manual drinkers is the ease of giving vitamins and other probiotics/medicines/vaccines through water.

Manual drinkers with stand made of high-impact plastic in bright colors (red or blue) are available.

Arrangement of drinkers at an equal distance of 0.6m between any two feeders and feeder and a drinker.

33. Syringe with needle/vaccine droppers

  • It is used to give vaccine drops through intra-nasal or intra-ocular.

34. Automatic vaccinator

35. Fowl pox vaccinator/lancetIt is used to inject different doses of vaccine to large number of birds in shorter period either through intra-muscular or subcutaneous route.

  • These are used to give fowl pox vaccine at intra-dermal route in the wing web region

Equipment for Poultry Business

36. Beak trimmer

It is an electrical device used to cut a portion of beak in order to prevent cannibalism among birds.

The equipment will be mounted on to a stand of convenient height (0.60 to 0.75) with a peddle connected to the top of the unit with a chain/strong thread so that upon pressing the peddle with the foot of the operator, the hot blade slides down cutting the beak placed over a small platform in the equipment.

The equipment is also provided with a thermostat to regulate temperature.

37. Nest boxes 

  • These are used to get clean eggs and to avoid floor eggs in layer or breeder houses.
  • These may be individual, communal or trap nest.

38. Weighing balances 

Different types of weighing balances are available to weigh birds or feed for record and marketing purposes.

39. Perches / Roost 

  • This is a wooden device usually kept at a height of about 3-5’ from the floor in order to help the bird to stand over it.

Equipment for Poultry Business

40. Rake 

  • It is made up of iron rods and fitted with wooden handle.
  • This is used to rake the litter material in case of deep-litter system of rearing.

41. Sprinkler

  • This is particularly important in hot weather areas.
  • Commercial irrigation sprinklers can be used to cool not only the surroundings of the farm buildings but also the roof of the farm.
  • But under hot-humid conditions, sprinklers are used only to cool the roof during afternoon hours only.

42. Sprayer

  • Several types of sprayers are available in the market.
  • But, that which is hand-operated and can be carried on the back while in use is most ideal for a poultry farm.
  • The desired disinfectant or sanitizer can be mixed and loaded on to the tank and sprayed.

43. Flame-gun (Blow-lamp)

  • It is very useful equipment and it generally works on kerosene (or gas).
  • It is used to flame metal frames to rid the building from external parasites and/ or their eggs/ larva etc.
I have been raising chickens for over five years now so I have my preferred methods of ways to feed and water and also my preferred suppliers of poultry equipment.
If you are just starting out and not sure where to turn, start with your local feed store.
Check out their prices and then compare them to the online stores.
Most of the time you will find if you buy local you will save on the shipping costs.
And there is the chance that if they do not have what you are looking for they will order it for you.

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