Understanding and Calculating Aggregate Supply in Economics

How do I calculate an aggregate supply?

Understanding and Calculating Aggregate Supply in Economics

How do I calculate an aggregate supply?: BusinessHAB.com


Aggregate supply is a fundamental concept in macroeconomics that measures the total quantity of goods and services that producers in an economy are willing and able to supply at a given overall price level. It is a crucial component in understanding the dynamics of an economy and is often analysed alongside aggregate demand to assess economic health and performance. In this article, we will delve into the key components of aggregate supply and explore how to calculate it.

Components of Aggregate Supply:

Aggregate supply is typically divided into short-run aggregate supply (SRAS) and long-run aggregate supply (LRAS). The short-run is characterized by the assumption that input prices (such as wages and raw materials) do not change immediately in response to changes in the overall price level. In the long-run, however, these input prices are considered to be flexible and able to adjust to changes in the price level.

Short-Run Aggregate Supply (SRAS):

SRAS is influenced by factors such as production costs, resource availability, and technology. The formula for SRAS is often expressed as follows:



In the short run, an increase in the overall price level () can lead to higher profits for businesses, resulting in an increase in the quantity of goods and services supplied.

Long-Run Aggregate Supply (LRAS):

In the long run, the level of output is determined by factors like the quantity and quality of resources, technological progress, and institutional arrangements. The long-run aggregate supply is often considered as the economy’s potential output. It is not influenced by changes in the overall price level.



    • is the quantity of labor,
    • represents technological advancements and the availability of other inputs.

Calculating Aggregate Supply:

The aggregate supply (AS) in the economy is a combination of the short-run and long-run aggregate supply. The relationship can be expressed as follows:


In other words, the actual level of output in the economy is constrained by the lower of the short-run and long-run aggregate supply. This reflects the idea that in the short run, prices and wages are not as flexible as in the long run.


Understanding and calculating aggregate supply is essential for policymakers, economists, and investors to gauge the health and potential of an economy. By considering both short-run and long-run factors, analysts can make more informed predictions about the impacts of economic policies and external shocks on the overall output of goods and services.

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