10 Basic School Stages and Improvement Tips

Filed in Education, Educational Tips by on August 31, 2021 0 Comments

Basic School Stages and Improvement Tips: The International Standard Classification of Education considers primary education.

As a single phase where programmes are typically designed to provide fundamental skills in reading, writing and mathematics and to establish a solid foundation for learning.

This is ISCED Level 1: Primary education or first stage of basic education.

During the review and revision, which led to the adoption of ISCED 2011.

UNESCO Member States agreed that the fields of education should be examined in a separate process.

This review is now underway with the view to establishing an independent.

But related classification called the ISCED Fields of Education and Training.

Basic School Stages and Improvement Tips

Framework of primary school 

School building design does not happen in isolation. The building (or school campus) needs to accommodate:

  • Curriculum content
  • Teaching methods
  • Costs
  • Education within the political framework
  • Use of school building (also in the community setting)
  • Constraints imposed by the site
  • Design philosophy

Each country will have a different education system and priorities.

Schools need to accommodate students, staff, storage, mechanical and electrical systems.

Storage, support staff, ancillary staff and administration.

The number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed.

Basic School Stages and Improvement Tips

Building design specifications

The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of:

The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community.

It has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements.

Minimal functional requirements for classrooms, toilets and showers, electricity and services.

Preparation and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.

An optimum school will meet the minimum conditions and will have:

  • adequately sized classrooms—where 60 m2 in considered optimum but 80 m2 for the reception class
  • specialised teaching spaces
  • a staff preparation room
  • staff welfare facilities
  • an administration block
  • multipurpose classrooms
  • student toilet facilities
  • a general purpose school hall
  • adequate equipment
  • storage
  • a library or library stocks that are regularly renewed
  • computer rooms or media centres
  • counselling, sick and medical examination rooms

Basic School Stages and Improvement Tips

Government accountants having read the advice then publish minimum guidelines on schools.

These enable environmental modelling and establishing building costs.

Future design plans are audited to ensure that these standards are met but not exceeded.

Government ministries continue to press for the ‘minimum’ space and cost standards to be reduced.

 Funding

There are three main ways of funding a school: it can funded by the state through general taxation.

It can be funded by a pressure group such as the mosque or the church.

It can be funded by a charity or it can be funded by contributions from the parents or a combination of these methods.

Day to day oversight of the school can through a board of governors, the pressure group or by the owner.

Basic School Stages and Improvement Tips

Basic levels of Education

a) Early childhood education (Early childhood educational development): Education designed to support early development in preparation for participation in school and society. Programmes designed for children below the age of 3. Initial stage of organized instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a school-type environment and to develop their cognitive, physical, social and emotional skills. Designed for children from age 3 to the start of primary education.

Basic School Stages and Improvement Tips

b) Early childhood education (Pre-primary education):Education designed to support early development in preparation for participation in school and society. Programmes designed for children from age 3 to the start of primary education.

c) Primary education: Programmes typically designed to provide students with fundamental skills in reading, writing and mathematics and to establish a solid foundation for learning. Normally starting between the ages of 5 – 7, designed to give a sound basic education in reading, writing and mathematics along with an elementary understanding of other subjects.

d) Lower secondary education: First stage of secondary education building on primary education, typically with a more subject-oriented curriculum. Designed to complete basic education, usually on a more subject-oriented pattern. It builds upon the learning outcomes from primary education (ISCED level 1) and aims to lay the foundation for lifelong learning and human development.

e) Upper secondary education: Second/final stage of secondary education preparing for tertiary education and/or providing skills relevant to employment. Usually with an increased range of subject options and streams. More specialized education typically beginning at age 15 or 16 years and/or completes secondary education in preparation for tertiary education, or to provide skills relevant to employment, or both.

Basic School Stages and Improvement Tips

f) Post-secondary non-tertiary education: Programmes providing learning experiences that build on secondary education and prepare for labour market entry and/or tertiary education. The content is broader than secondary but not as complex as tertiary education. Programmes that straddle the boundary between upper- and post-secondary education from an international point of view. ISCED level 4 programmes, considering their content, cannot be regarded as tertiary programmes. They are often not significantly more advanced than programmes at ISCED level 3 but they serve to broaden the knowledge of participants who have already completed a programme at level 3.

Basic School Stages and Improvement Tips

g) Short-cycle tertiary education: Short first tertiary programmes that are typically practically-based, occupationally-specific and prepare for labour market entry. These programmes may also provide a pathway to other tertiary programmes. First stage of tertiary education: typically shorter, more practical/technical/occupationally specific programmes leading to professional qualifications. Tertiary programmes having an educational content more advanced than those offered at ISCED levels 3 and 4. These programmes may be academically based or practically oriented / occupationally specific. Entry to these programmes normally requires the successful completion of ISCED level 3A or 3B or a similar qualification at ISCED level 4A. All degrees and qualifications are cross-classified by type of programmes, position in national degree or qualification structures and cumulative duration at tertiary.

Basic School Stages and Improvement Tips

h) Bachelor’s or equivalent: Programmes designed to provide intermediate academic and/or professional knowledge, skills and competencies leading to a first tertiary degree or equivalent qualification. First stage of tertiary education: largely theoretically based programmes intended to provide qualifications for gaining entry into more advanced research programmes and professions with higher skills requirements.

i) Master’s or equivalent: Programmes designed to provide advanced academic and/or professional knowledge, skills and competencies leading to a second tertiary degree or equivalent qualification. First stage of tertiary education: largely theoretically based programmes intended to provide qualifications for gaining entry into more advanced research programmes and professions with higher skills requirements.

Basic School Stages and Improvement Tips

j) Doctorate or equivalent: Programmes designed primarily to lead to an advanced research qualification, usually concluding with the submission and defense of a substantive dissertation of publishable quality based on original research. Second stage of tertiary education (leading to an advanced research qualification). Tertiary programmes leading to the award of an advanced research qualification, e.g. Ph.D. These programmes are therefore devoted to advanced study and original research and are not based on course-work only. It typically requires the submission of a thesis or dissertation of publishable quality which is the product of original research and represents a significant contribution to knowledge.

Basic School Stages and Improvement Tips

Conclusion

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