NTIPGDE Program as Formal Adult Education

Is NTIPGDE program formal adult education or non formal Education? Justify your answer

The decision of adults to return to formal education after having stepped away from school into work, family, or other roles has become a prominent feature of modern systems of social stratification and the life course (OECD, 2019, 2020).

Increasingly, adults see their initial episodes of schooling as inadequate to the skill or credential demands of advancing their careers (Cronen et al., 2017) and turn to further schooling as a remedy for those skills gaps (Cunha et al., 2006).

The demise of internal labour markets forces job seekers to pursue further credentials to signal their productive capacity to prospective employers, since they no longer have the opportunity to demonstrate this via traditional career lines within employing organizations.

Further, the combination of rapid technological change in the workplace, occupational restructuring, the aging of the workforce, the mismatches between the skills and credentials of immigrants and the demands of the labour markets they are entering, and in many nations the declining rate of labour force participation among older workers all serve to intensify the need for adults to constantly and routinely upgrade their skills to remain competitive in the labour market.

PGDE: BusinessHAB.com


The Postgraduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) programmes aim to prepare university graduates to become primary, secondary school and junior college teachers. Student teachers in the PGDE (Primary) and PGDE (Secondary) tracks will be equipped with the knowledge and skills to teach two school subjects (or one in the case of single-subject specialists). Those in the PGDE (Junior College) track will be equipped to teach one subject at the JC level and one at the Secondary level; except for Economics and General Paper, the junior college teaching subject and its paired secondary level teaching subject are related.


What is Adult Education

It is part of extension education which is aimed at educating adults including educating at work place. Learn more in: Education Collaboration Development: A Blended Shore Education Approach to Sustainable Development
A type of education that takes place outside the school system or one that takes place within the school system but in a flexible and collaborative manner. Learn more in: Assessment of Learning Needs of Street Vendors in Ghana: Implications for Adult Education.
Adult education is the practice of teaching and educating adults. Adult education takes place in the workplace, through “extension” school or “school of continuing education”

The practice is also often referred to as “Training and Development” and is often associated with workforce or professional development. It has also been referred to as andragogy. Adult education is different from non-formal adult education, which is mostly workplace-based for skill improvement; and also from  including learning skills or learning for personal development.


Adult education are practiced in three forms. These are: 

  • Formal – Structured learning that typically takes place in an education or training institution, usually with a set curriculum and carries credentials;
  • Non-formal – Learning that is organized by educational institutions but non credential. Non-formal learning opportunities may be provided in the workplace and through the activities of civil society organizations and groups;
  • Informal education – Learning that goes on all the time, resulting from daily life activities related to work, family, community or leisure (e.g. community baking class).

The concept of Non-formal adult education

The concept of Non-formal adult education is associated with the Danish philosopher, poet, educational thinker and clergyman, N.F.S. Grundtvig, and his thoughts concerning free educational opportunities. The concept first arose in the 19th century and is one of the special features of the Danish education system.

Non-formal learning activities are frequently based on private initiatives by non governmental organisations (NGOs). Non-formal adult education comprises:

  • Independent non-formal educational activity: evening schools and voluntary activity in associations
  • University extension courses
  • Day folk high schools
  • Private independent boarding schools (folk high schools, home economics schools, arts and crafts schools, and continuation schools)

No particular school or professional qualifications are required


The objective of non-formal adult education

The objective of non-formal adult education is, by taking a point of departure in the courses and activities, to increase the individual’s general and academic insight and skills and enhance the ability and desire to take responsibility for their own life, as well as taking an active and engaged part in society.

Non-formal adult education comprises teaching, study circles, lectures, debate creating activities and flexibly organised activities, and fees are charged for participation. The teaching is usually offered at evening schools which, within the framework laid down in and pursuant to law, themselves create the frame for their choice of subjects and activity. The overall grant to a non-formal liberal education activity may not exceed 1/3 of the associations’ total payroll.

Formal education usually is produced by a standardized curriculum. Adult education is based off the students direct needs at that current moment. Standardized curriculum is designed and remains unless there is a need to change it. Adult Education must be timely, relevant and immediately beneficial to the adult student. If it is missing any if those 3 things if will be rejected by the adult. The adult must be able to make sense why they need it now ie…promotion for a job. It must be timely…. On the job training because there must be certifications passed. And it must be beneficial to them now.


PGDE  Programme Description

The PDE is designed specifically for teachers without teaching qualifications, ranging
from holders of the Higher National Diploma to PhD or their equivalent. The PDE
further embodies the flexibility, richness in pedagogical content, provision for
specialisation etc. which have current national and international concerns. A candidate
who has successfully undergone the Professional Diploma in Education (PDE) is
qualified to pursue Masters Degree in Education.

The PGDE programme is designed to prepare University graduates to teach in Post Primary schools and Tertiary Institutions. The programme extends over two semesters and aims at providing teachers with professional training as well as a basis for their continuing professional development.

Programme Description

The Postgraduate Diploma in Education teaches an approach that will stay with its students throughout their careers They learn everything the qualified teacher needs to know about planning, teaching, learning, assessing, policies and processes. The focused and flexible NUC accredited programme will deliver the knowledge and skills they need to advance their career whenever and wherever it’s convenient for them. 

Through PGD programme, you will: 

  • Improve your practice by building and developing ideas/strategies 
  • Examine your education system from an international perspective 
  • Build your knowledge of the assumptions, concepts, and principles of a range of learning theories, evaluating their usefulness in specific situations 
  • Develop our expertise in practitioner research 
  • Make appropriate use of professional and research literature



The PGDE Academic Programme shall consist of core courses, required courses and
electives. Students shall pass at least 47 units made up of the following: 6 units of
Teaching Practice, 4 units of Project, 2 units of Micro-Teaching, 19 units of core
courses, 8 units of required and 8 units of elective. Required courses must be taken
and passed.


So, from my own point of view automatically, NTIPGDE program is a formal adult education. This conclusion sustains when considering the benefits of adult education. Adults benefit economically from returning to school.

“Second-chance” schooling significantly raises the likelihood that individuals will achieve more secure jobs with higher wages than had they remained out of the educational system.

At the same time, the evidence that adult education either pays off equally for all groups or benefits predominantly those who are initially already advantaged is more often manifested than the evidence for greater labour market benefits for those initially disadvantaged.

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