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Current 17 Good Building Materials for House Construction in Nigeria

Good Building Materials  is any material which is used for a construction purpose.

Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, sand, wood and rocks, even twigs and leaves have been used to construct buildings.

Apart from naturally occurring materials.

Many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic.

The manufacture of building materials is an established industry in many countries.

And the use of these materials is typically segmented into specific specialty trades.

Such as carpentry, plumbing, roofing and insulation work.

Good Building Materials

This reference deals with habitats and structures including homes.

Materials used for the construction of houses, offices and commercial buildings are classified as building materials.

The most commonly use materials for construction purposes include cement, stones, rocks, tiles and bricks.

Different materials are used according to specific requirements, availability of space and type of structure to be built.

Good Building Materials : Building Materials Used Before and Now

Building materials used during early years were stone, mud and other materials.

Instead of concrete, mud was used to fill the gaps between bricks and stones.

Construction was done using crude methods and techniques.

Clay, leaves, twigs and so forth were also used by people in the olden days to build houses.

Image result for Good Building MaterialsImage result for Good Building MaterialsImage result for Good Building Materials

Some of the most frequently used building materials include:

1.Good Building Materials : Clay and mud:

 During the earlier days, clay and mud was the most commonly used material though it was not as strong as the concrete constructions.

However, it helped to keep houses cool during summers.

2. Good Building Materials : Wood:

Another most frequently used material is wood.

Down the ages, wood has been used by people to build homes, furniture like tables, desks, chairs and so forth.

Wooden homes and cabins are found in many places even today.

Depending on the type of wood used, these houses are affected by varying climatic conditions.

Wood is a product of trees, and sometimes other fibrous plants, used for construction purposes when cut or pressed into lumber and timber, such as boards, planks and similar materials.

It is a generic building material and is used in building just about any type of structure in most climates.

Wood can be very flexible under loads, keeping strength while bending, and is incredibly strong when compressed vertically.

There are many differing qualities to the different types of wood, even among same tree species.

This means specific species are better for various uses than others. And growing conditions are important for deciding quality.

Good Building Materials

Historically, wood for building large structures was used in its unprocessed form as logs.

The trees were just cut to the needed length, sometimes stripped of bark, and then notched or lashed into place.

In earlier times, and in some parts of the world.

Many country homes or communities had a personal wood-lot from which the family or community would grow and harvest trees to build with.

These lots would be tended to like a garden.

With the invention of mechanizing saws came the mass production of dimensional lumber.

This made buildings quicker to put up and more uniform.

Thus the modern western style home was made.

3. Good Building Materials : Metal:

 Metals are also among the commonly used building materials.

Huge mansions and offices built of metals are strong and last for a life time.

Today most of the constructions are done in metal to retain its elegance and strength.

Metal is used as structural framework for larger buildings such as skyscrapers, or as an external surface covering.

There are many types of metals used for building.

Good Building Materials

Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron.

And is the usual choice for metal structural building materials.

It is strong, flexible, and if refined well and/or treated lasts a long time.

Corrosion is metal’s prime enemy when it comes to longevity.

The lower density and better corrosion resistance of aluminium alloys and tin sometimes overcome their greater cost. Brass was more common in the past.

But is usually restricted to specific uses or specialty items today.

Metal figures quite prominently in prefabricated structures such as the Quonset hut.

And can be seen used in most cosmopolitan cities.

It requires a great deal of human labor to produce metal.

Good Building Materials

Especially in the large amounts needed for the building industries.

Other metals used include titanium, chrome, gold, silver.

Titanium can be used for structural purposes, but it is much more expensive than steel.

Chrome, gold, and silver are used as decoration.

Because these materials are expensive and lack structural qualities such as tensile strength or hardness.

4. Good Building Materials : Concrete:

 Concrete is another material which is used for construction purposes.

It is a combination of sand, cement, water and gravel.

Most of the constructions are done in concrete today.

It has become an indispensable part of construction process.

It is long lasting and strong compared to mud and wood houses.

Concrete is a composite building material made from the combination of aggregate (composite) and a binder such as cement.

Good Building Materials

The most common form of concrete is Portland cement concrete.

Which consists of mineral aggregate (generally gravel and sand), portland cement and water.

After mixing, the cement hydrates and eventually hardens into a stone-like material.

When used in the generic sense, this is the material referred to by the term concrete.

For a concrete construction of any size.

As concrete has a rather low tensile strength.

It is generally strengthened using steel rods or bars (known as rebars).

Good Building Materials

This strengthened concrete is then referred to as reinforced concrete.

In order to minimise any air bubbles, that would weaken the structure,.

A vibrator is used to eliminate any air that has been entrained when the liquid concrete mix is poured around the ironwork.

Concrete has been the predominant building material in this modern age due to its longevity, formability, and ease of transport.

5. Good Building Materials : Granite:

Being one of the hardest materials available for constructing walls, floors and kitchen accessories, this stone has been in use since ancient times.

Granite counter tops are among the most preferred material for kitchen counter top.

Its durability and opulence are the main reasons why it is chosen by most of the people to decorate their homes.

The other advantages of this stone are that it is highly heat resistant and can be cleaned easily.

Good Building Materials

It does not retain any stains and bacteria.

Though it is a bit expensive, it is indeed an investment which last for a life time.

Apart from these there are many more building materials.

Used in the modern times like non shrink grouts.

Multi-wall panel, steel roof drain, crushed stones, wall putty, insulation products and so forth.

Brass materials are also used for construction purposes.

Good Building Materials

Today the business of building materials has flourished with the increase in constructions of houses, factories, industries and offices.

New products are available in the online stores at affordable rates.

In addition to construction materials you can even find flooring materials which are quite versatile.

Marbles, tiles, granite in unimaginable sizes and designs are obtained from the online markets.

By logging on to a good website, you can find materials for your new home and office.

Types of Building Materials Used in Construction

Natural Building Materials

Building materials can be generally categorized into two sources, natural and synthetic. Natural building materials are those that are unprocessed or minimally processed by industry, such as lumber or glass.

Synthetic materials are made in industrial settings after much human manipulations, such as plastics and petroleum based paints. Both have their uses.

Mud, stone, and fibrous plants are the most basic building materials, aside from tents made of flexible materials such as cloth or skins.

People all over the world have used these three materials together to create homes to suit their local weather conditions.

In general stone and/or brush are used as basic structural components in these buildings, while mud is used to fill in the space between, acting as a type of concrete and insulation.

A basic example is wattle and daub mostly used as permanent housing in tropical countries or as summer structures by ancient northern peoples.

6.Good Building Materials : Fabric

The tent used to be the home of choice among nomadic groups the world over.

Two well known types include the conical tepee and the circular yurt.

It has been revived as a major construction technique with the development of tensile architecture and synthetic fabrics.

Modern buildings can be made of flexible material such as fabric membranes, and supported by a system of steel cables or internal (air pressure.)

7. Good Building Materials :Mud and clay

The amount of each material used leads to different styles of buildings.

The deciding factor is usually connected with the quality of the soil being used.

Larger amounts of clay usually mean using the cob/adobe style, while low clay soil is usually associated with sod building.

The other main ingredients include more or less sand/gravel and straw/grasses.

Rammed earth is both an old and newer take on creating walls, once made by compacting clay soils between planks by hand, now forms and mechanical pneumatic compressors are used.

Good Building Materials

Soil and especially clay is good thermal mass; it is very good at keeping temperatures at a constant level.

Homes built with earth tend to be naturally cool in the summer heat and warm in cold weather.

Clay holds heat or cold, releasing it over a period of time like stone.

Earthen walls change temperature slowly, so artificially raising or lowering the temperature can use more resources than in say a wood built house, but the heat/coolness stays longer.

Peoples building with mostly dirt and clay, such as cob, sod, and adobe.

Resulted in homes that have been built for centuries in western and northern Europe as well as the rest of the world, and continue to be built, though on a smaller scale.

Some of these buildings have remained habitable for hundreds of years.

8. Good Building Materials : Rock

Rock structures have existed for as long as history can recall.

It is the longest lasting building material available, and is usually readily available.

There are many types of rock through out the world all with differing attributes that make them better or worse for particular uses.

Rock is a very dense material so it gives a lot of protection too.

Its main draw-back as a material is its weight and awkwardness.

Good Building Materials

Its energy density is also considered a big draw-back.

As stone is hard to keep warm without using large amounts of heating resources.

Dry-stone walls have been built for as long as humans have put one stone on top of another.

Eventually different forms of mortar were used to hold the stones together, cement being the most commonplace now.

Good Building Materials

The granite-strewn uplands of Dartmoor National Park, United Kingdom, for example, provided ample resources for early settlers.

Circular huts were constructed from loose granite rocks throughout the Neolithic and early Bronze Age, and the remains of an estimated 5,000 can still be seen today.

Granite continued to be used throughout the Medieval period (see Dartmoor longhouse) and into modern times. Slate is another stone type, commonly used as roofing material in the United Kingdom and other parts of the world where it is found.

Mostly stone buildings can be seen in most major cities.

Some civilizations built entirely with stone such as the Pyramids in Egypt, the Aztec pyramids and the remains of the Inca civilization.

9. Good Building Materials : Thatch

Thatch is one of the oldest of building materials known; grass is a good insulator and easily harvested.

Many African tribes have lived in homes made completely of grasses year round.

In Europe, thatch roofs on homes were once prevalent but the material fell out of favour as industrialization and improved transport increased the availability of other materials.

Today, though, the practice is undergoing a revival.

In the Netherlands, for instance, many of new builds too have thatched roofs with special ridge tiles on top.

10. Brush

Brush structures are built entirely from plant parts and are generally found in tropical and subtropical areas, such as rainforests, where very large leaves can be used in the building.

Native Americans often built brush structures for resting and living in, too.

These are built mostly with branches, twigs and leaves, and bark, similar to a beaver’s lodge.

These were variously named wickiups, lean-tos, and so forth.

Good Building Materials

11. Ice

Ice was used by the Inuit for igloos.

But has also been used for ice hotels as a tourist attraction in northern areas that might not otherwise see many winter tourists.

Good Building Materials

12. Brick and Block

A brick is a block made of kiln-fired material, usually clay or shale, but also may be of lower quality mud, etc.

Clay bricks are formed in a moulding (the soft mud method), or in commercial manufacture more frequently by extruding clay through a die and then wire-cutting them to the proper size (the stiff mud process).

Bricks were widely used as a building material in the 1700, 1800 and 1900s.

This was probably due to the fact that it was much more flame retardant than wood in the ever crowding cities, and fairly cheap to produce.

Another type of block replaced clay bricks in the late 20th century.

It was the Cinder block. Made mostly with concrete.

An important low-cost building material in developing countries is the Sandcrete block, which is weaker but cheaper than fired clay bricks.

Good Building Materials

13. Glass

Clear windows have been used since the invention of glass to cover small openings in a building.

They provided humans with the ability to both let light into rooms.

While at the same time keeping inclement weather outside.

Glass is generally made from mixtures of sand and silicates, and is very brittle.

Modern glass “curtain walls” can be used to cover the entire facade of a building.

Glass can also be used to span over a wide roof structure in a “space frame”.

Good Building Materials

14. Ceramics

Ceramics are such things as tiles, fixtures, etc. Ceramics are mostly used as fixtures or coverings in buildings. Ceramic floors, walls, counter-tops, even ceilings.

Many countries use ceramic roofing tiles to cover many buildings.

Ceramics used to be just a specialized form of clay-pottery firing in kilns.

But it has evolved into more technical areas.

Good Building Materials

15. Plastic

Plastic pipes penetrating a concrete floor in a Canadian highrise apartment building

The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers.

Their name is derived from the fact that in their semi-liquid state they are malleable, or have the property of plasticity.

Plastics vary immensely in heat tolerance, hardness, and resiliency.

Combined with this adaptability.

The general uniformity of composition and lightness of plastics.

Ensures their use in almost all industrial applications today

16. Good Building Materials: Foam

Foamed plastic sheet to be used as backing for firestop mortar at CIBC bank in Toronto.

More recently synthetic polystyrene or polyurethane foam has been used on a limited scale.

It is light weight, easily shaped and an excellent insulator.

It is usually used as part of a structural insulated panel where the foam is sandwiched between wood or cement.

17. Good Building Materials: Cement composites

Cement bonded composites are an important class of building materials.

These products are made of hydrated cement paste that binds wood or alike particles or fibers to make precast building components.

Various fibrous materials including paper and fiberglass have been used as binders.

Wood and natural fibres are composed of various soluble organic compounds like carbohydrates, glycosides and phenolics.

These compounds are known to retard cement setting.

Therefore, before using a wood in making cement boned composites, its compatibility with cement is assessed.

Wood-cement compatibility is the ratio of a parameter related to the property of a wood-cement composite to that of a neat cement paste.

The compatibility is often expressed as a percentage value.

To determine wood-cement compatibility, methods based on different properties are used, such as, hydration characteristics, strength, interfacial bond and morphology.

Good Building Materials

Various methods are used by researchers such as the measurement of hydration characteristics of a cement-aggregate mix.

The comparison of the mechanical properties of cement-aggregate mixes and the visual assessment of microstructural properties of the wood-cement mixes.

It has been found that the hydration test by measuring the change in hydration temperature with time is the most convenient method.

Recently, Karade et al. have reviewed these methods of compatibility assessment and suggested a method based on the ‘maturity concept’ i.e. taking in consideration both time and temperature of cement hydration reaction.

Categories of Building materials

a. Modern building materials:

Modern building is a multi billion dollar industry, and the production and harvesting of raw materials for building purposes is on a worldwide scale.

Often being a primary governmental and trade key point between nations.

Environmental concerns are also becoming a major world topic concerning the availability and sustainability of certain materials.

And the extraction of such large quantities needed for the human habitat.

b.Good Building Materials: Virtual Building  Materials

Certain materials like photographs, images, text may be considered virtual.

While, they usually exist on a substrate of natural material themselves.

They acquire a different quality of salience to natural materials through the process of representation.

c. Building Products

When we talk about building products we refer to the ready-made particles that are fitted in different architectural hardware and decorative hardware parts of a building.

The list of building products exclusively exclude the building materials.

Which are used to construct the building architecture and supporting fixtures like windows, doors, cabinets, etc.

Building products do not make any part of a building rather they support and make them working.


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